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EU-8: Chemistry and mineralogy of planetary interiors

This course discusses the chemical and mineralogical composition of planetary interiors: the Earth and other terrestrial planets, giant planets, exoplanets. The evolution of planetary materials from condensation processes to planetary differentiation will be presented, from the angle of chemistry and mineral physics both at surface conditions (input from observations of planetary surfaces, meteorites and geological samples) and at the extreme pressure and temperature conditions that prevail in planetary interiors (input from experiments, theory and thermodynamic modelling).

1 - Planetary materials at extreme conditions
- Introduction to high P-T techniques: static methods (large volume presses and diamond-anvil cells), dynamic methods (shock waves, ramp compression), and theoretical approaches; what can be measured depending on the P-T generated and the materials of interest (equation of states, phase diagrams, transport properties, chemical reactivity, etc).

- Giant planets, icy satellites and gaseous exoplanets: Relevant phase diagrams: H, He, planetary ices (H2O-NH3-CH4 system), and properties of these materials in relationship with the structure and dynamic of these planets.

- the Earth, terrestrial planets, their satellites and super-Earths: Behavior of silicates, Fe and Fe-alloys, crystalline phases and liquids (magmas, molten Fe); implications for the structure and formation of planets.

- lab tour (high pressure&temperature facilities)

2 - Light elements: inventory, behavior and speciation in terrestrial planets
- Abundance and behavior of light elements: proto-solar abundances, condensation processes and volatility, geochemical behavior

- Distribution of light elements in planetary interiors: surface data (inventory and fixation processes on rocky envelopes), abundances in planetary interiors (input from high pressure experiments and geochemical data).

3 - Planetary differentiation
- bulk composition: chondritic models

- planetary differentiation: formation of the main reservoirs (atmosphere, crust/mantle, core)

Skills to be acquired

- to be able to know which property to look for or measure, on which material, in order to tackle a specific point related to the internal dynamic or structure of a planet
- to have a critical eye on the technical aspects of experimental papers

Recommended textbooks

- Ce que disent les minéraux, P. Cordier et H. Leroux, Eds Belin - Pour la Science, 2008.
- L’intérieur de la Terre et des planètes, A. Dewaele et C. Sanloup, Eds Belin, 2005.
- Introduction to the Physics of the Earth’s interior, J.-P. Poirier, Eds Cambridge University Press, 2000.
- La géochimie, F. Albarède, Eds Gordon&Breach, 2001.


- Interiors of the Earth: mineralogy and structure (PREM model)
- basic concepts in geochemistry (partition coefficients, geochemical affinity of the elements)


- oral exam based on a written report proposing an experimental method to solve a given problem in planetology (a list of such problems will be given); will be team-based depending on the number of students attending the course


Chrystèle Sanloup, Université Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, ISTEP, CNRS UMR 7193, case 110, 4 place Jussieu 75252 Paris, Cedex 05 France, Tel : +33 1 44 27 52 07 - E-mail : chrystele.sanloup@upmc.fr


C. Sanloup and Agnès Elmaleh, Université Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, IMPMC, CNRS UMR 7590, case 115, 4 place Jussieu 75252 Paris, Cedex 05 France, Tel : +33 1 44 27 50 61 - E-mail : agnes.elmaleh@impmc.upmc.fr

Université Paris-Saclay Sorbonne Université Université Paris-Sud Université Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines Observatoire de Paris Université Denis Diderot Paris Université Paris-Est Créteil Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle
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